Essential-Words-for-the-Toefl

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Essential-Words-for-the-Toefl

 

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CHAPTER 1
GETTING TO KNOW THE
TOEFL
WHAT IS THE TOEFL?
The TOEFL is a comprehensive English language examination required by more than 3,000
colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and other parts of the world. In addition,
foreign born professionals frequently need a TOEFL score for certification to practice thei
profession in the United States or Canada.
The TOEFL is a timed test that consists of the three sections listed here.
THE TOEFL
Section 1
Listening Comprehension
50 questions
35 minutes
Part A
Statements
20 questions
Part B
Short Dialogs
15 questions
Part C
Minitalks and Extended Conversations
15 questions
Section 2
Structure and Written Expression
40 questions
Structure
25 minutes
Written Expression
15 questions
25 questions
Section 3
Vocabulary and Reading
60 questions
Comprehension
45 minutes
Vocabulary
30 questions
Reading Comprehension
30 questions
SECTION 1: LISTENING COMPREHENSION
This section of the TOEFL test your ability to understand spoken American English. You will hea
taped conversations to which you will make responses. Part A and B contain samples of informal
American English. Idiomatic expressions and two-word ve
s are common in these parts.
Single Statement
In Part A you will hear a single statement made by a man or a woman. In your test booklet, there
are four sentences. You must choose the sentence that is closest in meaning to the one you heard.
YOU WILL HEAR:
To get to the post office, cross the street, go three blocks, and you'll see it right on the corner.
YOU WILL SEE:
(A) The post office is right on the corner.
(B) The post office is at the next corner.
(C) The post office has a cross near it.
(D) The post office is three blocks away.
The co
ect choice is, which most closely gives the same meaning as the sentence you heard. It is
important for you to know that if similar sounding words or the same words appear in an answe
choice, that answer choice is seldom co
ect.
Short Dialogs
Part B contains short dialogs followed by a question about what the people said in thei
conversation. Generally, key information is found in the second speaker's sentence. You will need
to understand the meaning of the conversation and also the context , such as the time or place in
which it could occur. The co
ect choice directly answers the question.
YOU WILL HERE:
(Man Did you get to go shopping last night'? (Woman) They'd already locked the doors by the time
I got there.
(Man) What does the woman mean?
YOU WILL SEE:
(A) She a
ived in time to shop.
(B) She was too late.
(C) She locked the doors.
(D) She had to buy the door.
The co
ect choice is. Since the doors were locked when she a
ived, she could not have gone
shopping. Note that the other choices use words heard in the conversation. Choices that contain
such words are usually not co
ect.
Extended Conversation / Minitalks
In Part C you will hear an extended conversation or a minitalk. The English in this section is
generally more formal and academic, typical of English conversation or lectures that take place in a
university or college setting. After each conversation or minitalk, there are between four and eight
spoken questions about its content. Choose your answer from among the four choices that appear in
your test book-let. Look at the example here.
YOU WILL HERE:
Man: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Welcome to this tour of one of the nation's most
important cities, Chicago. Before we begin, I'd like to give you some background information that
will make the tour more enjoyable for you. The city was founded in 1837. Its strategic location on
Lake Michigan quickly made it the center of commerce for the Midwest section of the country. It is
cu
ently the third largest metropolitan area In the United States. The city's site is generally level,
uilt mostly on glacial plain. The na
ow Chicago River extends one mile inland from Lake
Michigan, where it splits, dividing the city into North, West, and South sides. Chicago's weather is
subject to rapid changes, but generally the climate is cold and windy in the winter, and hot and
humid in the summer.
Woman: What gave Chicago an advantage over other Midwest cities?
YOU WILL SEE:
(A) Its level site.
(B) Its location on Lake Michigan.
(C) Its large population.
(D) Its location along the Chicago River.
According to the minitalk, would be the co
ect choice. Remember that you will not have a written
copy of the speaker's talk or conversation and you will only hear it once. You must concentrate on
details, such as names, dates, and the main idea of the selection that you hear. Do not read the
choices as you listen to the talk. Listen care-fully and try to remember what you hear.
SECTION 2: STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION
This section contains two types of questions, both designed to test your ability to recognize co
ect
style and grammar in written English. The sentences are academic; ones that you typically find in
college level texts, journals, and encyclopedias. The sentence topics include the social sciences,
physical and life sciences, and the humanities.
Structure
The structure questions test your ability to recognize co
ect structure and word order. These
questions consist of a sentence with one or more words missing. You must make the choice that
est completes the sentence. Here is an example of this type of question.
YOU WILL SEE:
__________ a short time after the Civil War, Atlanta has become the principal center of
transportation, commerce, and finance in the southeastern United States.
(A) While rebuilt
(B) It was rebuilt
(C) Rebuilt
(D) When rebuilt
The co
ect choice is (C). The other choices make the sentence inco
ect or awkward.
Written Expression
The written expression questions test your ability to recognize e
ors in grammar or expression.
These questions consist of complete sentences with four underlined words or phrases. You must
identify the underlined part of the sentence that needs to be changed in order to make the sentence
co
ect. An example follows.
YOU WILL SEE:
The Navajo Indians have displayed a marked ability
A B
to incorporate aspects of other cultures into a changing,
C
flexibility lifestyle
D
The co
ect choice is (D). Flexibility, a noun, appears where an adjective must appear. In addition to
inappropriate parts of speech, be sure to check for missing words and extra words that are
inappropriate for the context.
SECTION 3: VOCABULARY AND READING COMPREHENSION
Good reading skills and an ample vocabulary are keys to doing well on all sections of the TOEFL.
This section of the TOEFL specifically test these skills. Many TOEFL test takers complain that they
do not have enough time to carefully answer all questions in this section. It is very important that
you follow the instructions in this book so that you will use all the allotted time to your advantage.
Vocabulary
The first questions on this section will test your English vocabulary. There are 30 academic
sentences, each containing an underlined word. You must choose the word that has the same
meaning from among the four choices. Here's an example.
YOU WILL SEE:
The United States has instituted a set of forest conservation measures to maintain forest land.
(A) accepted
(B) published
(C) established
(D) suggested
The word that is closest in meaning to the tested word, instituted, is choice (C). Further hints fo
vocabulary questions can be found in Chapter 2.
Reading Comprehension
Your ability to read and understand college level reading material is test on this part of the TOEFL.
You will find five or six reading passages, each followed by four to seven questions. You must
work quickly and efficiently. Here is a sample passage.
YOU WILL SEE:
A lens has one or more curved surfaces that refract or bend, light rays passing through it to form an
image on a surface beyond the lens. Examples of such surfaces are the retina of the eye or a movie
screen. The distance from the lens to the focal plane is known as focal length. In cameras,
telescopes, and similar devices, the lens is turned on a screw-thread mounting to adjust the focal
length. This action allows focusing of images of objects at various distances. In the human eye,
focal length is adjusted by muscles that alter the lens curvature. Light rays of different colors are
ent by varying degrees as they pass through a curved surface. This causes a distortion of the
image, known as chromatic abe
ation. In cameras, sharp images are obtained by a
anging two o
more lenses so that the abe
ation of one cancels out the abe
ation of another. Such an a
angement
of lenses is called an achromatic lens.
QUESTION:
According to the passage, what is focal length?
(A) A curved surface that refracts light.
(B) The distance from the focal plane to the lens.

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